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Written especially for Petroleum Engineers
What is GasPal? Why use GasPal?
Maraco Inc. – Global Oil Patch Consultants
Maraco specializes in software for nodal analysis of gas production operations and investment planning of oil and gas development and production. GasPal, its world-class simulator, constructs integrated systems of gas, condensate, and water flow within each of a group of gridded reservoir models (or a single reservoir), up the wells’ tubing and through the surface flowlines, separators, and compressors to one or more delivery points. Offtake rate may be at capacity but more often is limited to a specified maximum subject to maintaining required spare capacity. The composition of all components is traced at every point in the flow stream making possible control of product stream requirements such as maximum CO2 content or NGL yield. GasPal includes several convenient history matching features. Historical and projected P/Z and Havlena-Odeh plots are overlaid on a common graph to assure correct interpretation of production mechanism, i.e., volumetric expansion vs water influx or subsidence. Also, flow can be reversed in GasPal to model gas storage operations.
Investment planning software determines drilling, production and surface
processing schemes for a group of oil and gas reservoirs that maximize profit for requested delivery schedules. Linear programming is used to optimize while accounting for logistical or economic constraints.
Past and current gas modeling projects include
- Scheduling production from a group of North Sea reservoirs with variable DCQ limits (TOTAL, The Hague, 19 years),
- Evaluating the operator’s production practices (EBN, Heerlen, Utrecht, 19 years),
- Planning production from layered (up to 30) reservoirs developed from multiple platforms (6, 23) (TOTAL, Balikpapin, 8 years)
- Planning on-spec production from several reservoirs with widely varying CO2 concentrations.
- Gas storage projects include blowdown of a leaky gas storage
reservoir prior to abandonment (including rejection of proposed compression) and evaluation of the impact of increased aquifer water influx vs
lowered cushion gas.
Investment planning models include
- Long-range drilling and production projections to deliver targeted oil rates considering water injection, gas lift and crude quality for Kuwait Oil Co and Aramco. The models considered the processing of both associated and non-associated gas, sales gas requirements and volumes of LPG produced.
- A gas simulation planning model that determined optimal drilling plans in a North Sea complex.
- An optimization system that integrated the simulated performance of each of sizable group of reservoirs producing through a liquids recovery plant all in the Australian Outback. Maximizing profit required a critical balance between sufficient production from dry gas reservoirs to supply a long-range gas delivery contract while producing as much as possible from wet gas reservoirs.
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